The Economic Consequences of the Peace (1919) was a best seller throughout the world, published by John Maynard Keynes. His portraits indicated a fine presence and a commanding delivery. Besides, any open rupture with his colleagues would certainly bring upon his head the blind passions of 'anti-German' resentment with which the public of all Allied countries were still inspired. He could have preached a sermon on any of them or have addressed a stately prayer to the Almighty for their fulfilment; but he could not frame their concrete application to the actual state of Europe. (1920) The Peace of Versailles by J.M. Then began the weaving of that web of sophistry and Jesuitical exegesis that was finally to clothe with insincerity the language and substance of the whole treaty. If he was met on some points with apparent generosity (for there was always a safe margin of quite preposterous suggestions which no one took seriously), it was difficult for him not to yield on others. Besides, it is impossible month after month, in intimate and ostensibly friendly converse between close associates, to be digging the toes in all the time. Keynes, John Maynard, The Economic Consequences of the Peace (1919), Chapter 2 Chapter II EUROPE BEFORE THE WAR II.1 BEFORE 1870 different parts of the small continent of Europe had specialized in their own products; but, taken as a whole, it was substantially self-subsistent. Immediately download the The Economic Consequences of the Peace summary, chapter-by-chapter analysis, book notes, essays, quotes, character descriptions, lesson plans, and more - everything you need for studying or teaching The Economic Consequences of the Peace. Economic consequences of the peace. What a great man came to Europe in those early days of our victory! The text of this edition is in the public domain. The honest and intelligible purpose of French policy, to limit the population of Germany and weaken her economic system, is clothed, for the President's sake, in the august language of freedom and international equality. A short sentence, decisive or cynical, was generally sufficient, a question, an unqualified abandonment of his ministers, whose face would not be saved, or a display of obstinacy reinforced by a few words in a piquantly delivered English. Although the term has been used (and abused) to describe many things over the years, six principal tenets seem central to Keynesianism. Much in it which now seemed so vital would become trifling, and much which was impracticable would for that very reason never happen. His bold and measured words carried to the peoples of Europe above and beyond the voices of their own politicians. In spite, therefore, of France's victorious issue from the present struggle (with the aid, this time, of England and America), her future position remained precarious in the eyes of one who took the view that European civil war is to be regarded as a normal, or at least a recurrent, state of affairs for the future, and that the sort of conflicts between organised Great Powers which have occupied the past hundred years will also engage the next. Nov. 17, 2020. But the work was too complete, and to this was due the last tragic episode of the drama. We had indeed quite a wrong idea of the President. The war has bitten into his consciousness somewhat differently from ours, and he neither expects nor hopes that we are at the threshold of a new age. If only the President had not been so conscientious, if only he had not concealed from himself what he had been doing, even at the last moment he was in a position to have recovered lost ground and to have achieved some very considerable successes. He felt about France what Pericles felt of Athens -- unique value in her, nothing else mattering; but his theory of politics was Bismarck's. His philosophy had, therefore, no place for 'sentimentality' in international relations. His arms and legs had been spliced by the surgeons to a certain posture, and they must be broken again before they could be altered. And was not this, after all, by far the most important issue for the future happiness of the world? Besides, he was soon made to appear to be taking the German part, and laid himself open to the suggestion (to which he was foolishly and unfortunately sensitive) of being 'pro-German'. Before Kino and Juana return home, the news had already spread that Kino had found "The Pearl of the World," as it comes to be known. The Economic Consequences of the Peace (1919) was a best seller throughout the world, published by John Maynard Keynes. With its prescient warnings of instability and further conflict, the importance of this book is more than merely historical. After all, it was harder to de-bamboozle this old Presbyterian than it had been to bamboozle him; for the former involved his belief in and respect for himself. But, apart from tactics, the French had a policy. By 1914 the population of Germany was nearly seventy per cent in excess of that of France; she had become one of the first manufacturing and trading nations of the world; her technical skill and her means for the production of future wealth were unequalled. Published just months after the Versailles Treaty was signed, The Economic Consequences of the Peace is a devastating critique of allied leaders and the reparations they imposed on Germany and Austria in the aftermath of World War I. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (129K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. And if he were defeated, would not the final peace be far worse than if he were to retain his prestige and endeavour to make it as good as the limiting conditions of European politics would allow him? In those parts of the treaty with which I am here concerned, the lead was taken by the French, in the sense that it was generally they who made in the first instance the most definite and the most extreme proposals. But it is doubtful how far he thought these characteristics peculiar to Germany, or whether his candid view of some other nations was fundamentally different. But this was exactly what the President could not admit; in the sweat of solitary contemplation and with prayers to God he had done nothing that was not just and right; for the President to admit that the German reply had force in it was to destroy his self-respect and to disrupt the inner equipoise of his soul; and every instinct of his stubborn nature rose in self-protection. American efforts and motives during the peace process permeates the book. But, like Odysseus, the President looked wiser when he was seated; and his hands, though capable and fairly strong, were wanting in sensitiveness and finesse. Before the Franco-German war the populations of France and Germany were approximately equal; but the coal and iron and shipping of Germany were in their infancy, and the wealth of France was greatly superior. Read Online. 0 (0 Reviews) Free Download. 1. A moment often arrives when substantial victory is yours if by some slight appearance of a concession you can save the face of the opposition or conciliate them by a restatement of your proposal helpful to them and not injurious to anything essential to yourself. Caught up in the toils of the Old World, he stood in great need of sympathy, of moral support, of the enthusiasm of masses. The glory of the nation you love is a desirable end -- but generally to be obtained at your neighbour's expense. The Economic Consequences of the Peace. Reuben and Swede watch this play out through Davy 's trial and subsequent escape, and Reuben experiences the consequences of his own actions in North Dakota after he reconnects with Davy. The public decisio... Read This In chapters 4 and 5 I shall study in some detail the economic and financial provisions of the treaty of peace with Germany. The almost unanimous voice of the French and British Press could be anticipated. The word was issued to the witches of all Paris: Fair is foul, and foul is fair, And who knows but that the President forgot that another part of the treaty provides that for this purpose the council of the League must be unanimous. Now it was that what I have called his theological or Presbyterian temperament became dangerous. What weakness or what misfortune had led to so extraordinary, so unlooked-for a betrayal? Where, therefore, British and American interests were not seriously involved their criticism grew slack, and some provisions were thus passed which the French themselves did not take very seriously, and for which the eleventh-hour decision to allow no discussion with the Germans removed the opportunity of remedy. Thus, as soon as this view of the world is adopted and the other discarded, a demand for a Carthaginian peace is inevitable, to the full extent of the momentary power to impose it. About The Economic Consequences of the Peace. … In many ways The Economic Consequences of the Peace is a stand-out volume in Keynes’s wider oeuvre.” (LSE Review of Books, blogs.lse.ac.uk, November 20, 2019) He resigned from these positions when it became evident […] But the President was not capable of so clear an understanding with himself as this implied. He particularly drew attention to the balance of payments problems that would arise in transferring reparations equal to four times … With this picture of him in mind, we can return to the actual course of events. Summary of John Maynard Keynes' "The Economic Consequences of the Peace" "The Economic Consequences is a book written by J. M. Keynes, who was an economist. But it will be easier to appreciate the true origin of many of these terms if we examine here some of the personal factors which influenced their preparation. The President's mistaken policy over the congressional election had weakened his personal position in his own country, and it was by no means certain that the American public would support him in a position of intransigency. But it will be easier to appreciate the true origin of many of these terms if we examine here some of the personal factors which influenced their preparation. In placing the river system of Germany under foreign control, the treaty speaks of declaring international those 'river systems which naturally provide more than one state with access to the sea, with or without transhipment from one vessel to another'. Keynes constantly frets that perceived vengeance wrought unto the Germans only invites future destruction to the 8 John Maynard Keynes, The Economic Consequences of the Peace (Lanham: Start Classics, 2014), 55 - 56 9 Keynes, Consequences, 56. It was commonly believed at the commencement of the Paris conference that the President had thought out, with the aid of a large body of advisers, a comprehensive scheme not only for the League of Nations, but for the embodiment of the Fourteen Points in an actual treaty of peace. Peace Like a River focuses intently on the idea that all actions, thoughts, and beliefs (noble or otherwise) have consequences. For a peace of magnanimity or of fair and equal treatment, based on such 'ideology' as the Fourteen Points of the President, could only have the effect of shortening the interval of Germany's recovery and hastening the day when she will once again hurl at France her greater numbers and her superior resources and technical skill. He had to take up, therefore, a persistent attitude of obstruction, criticism, and negation, if the draft was to become at all in line with his own ideas and purpose. His seat in the room in the President's house, where the regular meetings of the Council of Four were held (as distinguished from their private and unattended conferences in a smaller chamber below), was on a square brocaded chair in the middle of the semicircle facing the fire-place, with Signor Orlando on his left, the President next by the fire-place, and the Prime Minister opposite on the other side of the fire-place on his right. The politics of power are inevitable, and there is nothing very new to learn about this war or the end it was fought for; England had destroyed, as in each preceding century, a trade rival; a mighty chapter had been closed in the secular struggle between the glories of Germany and of France. This was partly a matter of tactics. But as soon, alas, as he had taken the road of compromise, the defects, already indicated, of his temperament and of his equipment, were fatally apparent. The disillusion was so complete, that some of those who had trusted most hardly dared speak of it. THE writer of this book was temporarily attached to the British Treasury during the war and was their official representative at the Paris Peace Conference up to June 7, 1919; he also sat as deputy for the Chancellor of the Exchequer on the Supreme Economic Council. His principles for the peace can be expressed simply. His walk, his hand, and his voice were not lacking in vigour, but he bore nevertheless, especially after the attempt upon him, the aspect of a very old man conserving his strength for important occasions. The Economic Consequences of the Peace, by 1. A Keynesian believes that aggregate demand is influenced by a host of economic decisions—both public and private—and sometimes behaves erratically. His fellow-plenipotentiaries were dummies; and even the trusted Colonel House, with vastly more knowledge of men and of Europe than the President, from whose sensitiveness the President's dullness had gained so much, fell into the background as time went on. “The Economic Consequences of the Peace is almost certainly Keynes’s most accessible book which has been read for pleasure by non-economists as much as by economists themselves. Hover through the fog and filthy air. Thus, if he threw down the gage publicly he might be defeated. The first glance at the President suggested not only that, whatever else he might be, his temperament was not primarily that of the student or the scholar, but that he had not much even of that culture of the world which marks M. Clemenceau and Mr Balfour as exquisitely cultivated gentlemen of their class and generation. The paragraph "Post War Settlement" should not be in this article, since it appears to be describing World War II, not World War I. The reply of Brockdorff-Rantzau inevitably took the line that Germany had laid down her arms on the basis of certain assurances, and that the treaty in many particulars was not consistent with these assurances. 467-472. So far as possible, therefore, it was the policy of France to set the clock back and to undo what, since 1870, the progress of Germany had accomplished. 2 tinuation of warlike enterprise — and this in spite of the fact that Mr Keynes was continuously and intimately in touch with the Peace Conference during all those devious negotiations by which the Get an answer for 'Explain the "economic consequences of the peace" that John Maynard Keynes warned about as an outcome of the Treaty of Versailles. Whether you need an overview of The Economic Consequences of the Peace or a detailed summary of the book for a college project or just for fun, Readcentral.com brings you the book-wise summaries of The Economic Consequences of the Peace for free. After a display of much principle and dignity in the early days of the Council of Ten, he discovered that there were certain very important points in the programme of his French, British or Italian colleague, as the case might be, of which he was incapable of securing the surrender by the methods of secret diplomacy. The President was capable of digging his toes in and refusing to budge, as he did over Fiume. He could not, all in a minute, take in what the rest were saying, size up the situation with a glance, frame a reply, and meet the case by a slight change of ground; and he was liable, therefore, to defeat by the mere swiftness, apprehension, and agility of a Lloyd George. A review of The Economic Consequences of the Peace by John Maynard Keynes. He carried no papers and no portfolio, and was unattended by any personal secretary, though several French ministers and officials appropriate to the particular matter in hand would be present round him. London: Macmillan, 1919. The grounds of his objection to the Treaty, or rather to the whole policy of the Conference towards the economic problems of Europe, will appear in the following chapters. He had one illusion -- France; and one disillusion -- mankind, including Frenchmen, and his colleagues not least. The Economic Consequences of the Peace, Keynes’s best-selling denunciation of the injustice, inexpediency and infeasibility of the economics clauses of the Versailles Peace Treaty, made Keynes a world-famous and highly controversial public intellectual. Chapter 3: The Conference→ 41274 The Economic Consequences of the Peace — Chapter 2: Europe Before the War John Maynard Keynes Before 1870 different parts of the small continent of Europe had specialised in their own products; but, taken as a whole, it was substantially self-subsistent. THE writer of this book was temporarily attached to the British Treasury during the war and was their official representative at the Paris Peace Conference up to June 7, 1919; he also sat as deputy for the Chancellor of the Exchequer on the Supreme Economic Council. The President was not a hero or a prophet; he was not even a philosopher; but a generously intentioned man, with many of the weaknesses of other human beings, and lacking that dominating intellectual equipment which would have been necessary to cope with the subtle and dangerous spellbinders whom a tremendous clash of forces and personalities had brought to the top as triumphant masters in the swift game of give and take, face to face in council -- a game of which he had no experience at all. https://en.wikisource.org/w/index.php?title=The_Economic_Consequences_of_the_Peace/Chapter_3&oldid=3752543, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. He sees the issue in terms of France and Germany, not of humanity and of European civilisation struggling forwards to a new order. But if the President was not the philosopher-king, what was he? He could let the conference drag on an endless length by the exercise of sheer obstinacy. In November 1918 the armies of Foch and the words of Wilson had brought us sudden escape from what was swallowing up all we cared for. His age, his character, his wit, and his appearance joined to give him objectivity and a defined outline in an environment of confusion. His thought and his temperament were essentially theological not intellectual, with all the strength and the weakness of that manner of thought, feeling, and expression. Hence sprang those cumulative provisions for the destruction of highly organised economic life which we shall examine in the next chapter. After all he was a man who had spent much of his life at a university. ... 每当我捧起他的The Economic Consequences of the Peace,我都会觉得特别幸福,能读到他的书,即是幸福的一个理由。 认识凯恩斯的时候我十七岁。 The President's slowness amongst the Europeans was noteworthy. They were also very risky, especially for a politician. But in fact the President had thought out nothing; when it came to practice his ideas were nebulous and incomplete. Chapters IV, V, and VI can be safely skipped entirely. New York: Harcourt, 1920. According to this vision of the future, European history is to be a perpetual prize-fight, of which France has won this round, but of which this round is certainly not the last. Blog. Thus instead of saying that German Austria is prohibited from uniting with Germany except by leave of France (which would be inconsistent with the principle of self-determination), the treaty, with delicate draftsmanship, states that 'Germany acknowledges and will respect strictly the independence of Austria, within the frontiers which may be fixed in a treaty between that state and the principal Allied and Associated Powers; she agrees that this independence shall be inalienable, except with the consent of the council of the League of Nations', which sounds, but is not, quite different. The conditions seemed favourable beyond any expectation. By what legerdemain was this policy substituted for the Fourteen Points, and how did the President come to accept it? THE ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF THE PEACE, by JOHN MAYNARD KEYNES. He had so formed his entourage that he did not receive through private channels the current of faith and enthusiasm of which the public sources seemed dammed up. What then was he to do in the last resort? Besides these qualities he would have the objectivity, the cultivation, and the wide knowledge of the student. Chapter 4 The Treaty. The President was not equipped with this simple and usual artfulness. The Economic Consequences of the Peace by Thorstein Veblen Political Science Quarterly, 35, pp. Therefore you must never negotiate with a German or conciliate him; you must dictate to him. Even after the loss of Alsace-Lorraine there was no great discrepancy between the real resources of the two countries. And in this drought the flower of the President's faith withered and dried up. These tactics were justified by the event. This page was last edited on 14 April 2012, at 21:48. Nations are real things, of whom you love one and feel for the rest indifference -- or hatred. The subtlest sophisters and most hypocritical draftsmen were set to work, and produced many ingenious exercises which might have deceived for more than an hour a cleverer man than the President. But above all, if he were defeated, would he not lose the League of Nations? He spoke seldom, leaving the initial statement of the French case to his ministers or officials; he closed his eyes often and sat back in his chair with an impassive face of parchment, his grey-gloved hands clasped in front of him. Full text Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. In his The Economic Consequences of the Peace, published in December 1919, Keynes predicted that the stiff war reparations and other harsh terms … My purpose in this book is to show that the Carthaginian peace is not practically right or possible. The Economic Consequences of the Peace is now reissued by Keynes’ publisher of choice with a new introduction from Michael Cox, one of the major figures in the field of International Relations today. 15776: This is the policy of an old man, whose most vivid impressions and most lively imagination are of the past and not of the future. But in the intervening period the relative position had changed completely. Keynes attended the Versailles Conference as a delegate of the British Treasury and argued for a much more generous peace with Germany. By pleasantness and an appearance of conciliation, the President would be manoeuvred off his ground, would miss the moment for digging his toes in and, before he knew where he had been got to, it was too late. The cry would simply be that for various sinister and selfish reasons the President wished 'to let the Hun off'. 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