The crux of the argument is that actors’ narratives often hinge on the construction of their frames. A similar approach, adjudged as successful, has been adopted in South Africa (Viljoen et al. Deliberate opening of dams (17 frames) and poor design or construction of infrastructure such as drainage (8 frames) were the other two main frames evident within the urban flooding discourse of governmental actors in Nigeria., Douglas I, Alam K, Maghenda M, McDonnell Y, McLean L, Campbell J (2008) Unjust waters: climate change, flooding and the urban poor in Africa. Flooding has once again hit areas of northeast Nigeria, severely affecting thousands of people in Borno State. Flooding is commonly caused by heavy downpours of rains on flat ground, reservoir failure, volcano, melting of snow and or glaciers e.t.c. When these defences fail, emergency measures such as sandbags or portable inflatable tubes are used. >> These sources were collected through comprehensive and extensive searching using databases such as ProQuest and Internet-based search engines (i.e. In 2012, Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa, experienced one of its largest floods in a century (Mmom and Aifesehi 2013) causing the destruction of assets worth over US$9.5 billion, most of which were in the urban centres (Federal Government of Nigeria 2013). 0000018141 00000 n FLOODING IN NIGERIA: CAUSES, EFFECTS AND SOLUTION Chapter one Introduction 1.1 Background to the study Floods are major disasters affecting many countries of the world annually especially in most flood plain areas. geographic coverage, reporting narratives of actors rather than journalist opinion, etc). The narrative of NGOs on causal factors of urban flooding in Nigeria, like that of multilateral organisations, was evenly balanced, suggesting a combination of both climate-related and human factors. 2001) and Ireland (The Office of Public Works 2004). The strategies were categorised according to Carmin et al. There are broadly four approaches to content analysis of news media articles, namely semiotic, discourse, narrative and frame analysis (Devereux 2013). This was commonly put down to ‘unexplained increase or high rainfall’ (13 frames) and ‘rise in water levels’ (especially articles reporting on coastal cities and those along the Niger-Benue River). The next section draws upon frames of actors who have commented on urban flooding in Nigeria from 2012 to September 2016, their perceived causes of flooding (human and climate related) and practiced or proposed solutions to the problem (institutional, structural or societal). Like the government frame, the dominant frame among local actors on the perceived cause of flooding is disregard for laws and regulations (Table 1). Each of these narratives has different discursive underpinnings around which they frame the ‘problem’ of urban flooding and its ‘solutions’. Similarly, despite considerable advancement and technological capabilities for dealing with 1988) since the way an entity perceives a problem is likely to determine the policies and programmes that they support to address it (Niles et al. Benue and Hadeja. The framing of solution to flooding as laws and order and engineering solutions among direct actors (government and local communities) re-echo approaches such as ‘flood control’ (Butler and Pidgeon 2011) and ‘through police power’ (Dunham 1959), which were dominant in developed countries in the last century. The last 7 days rainfall accumulation (data … 2015), causing social, economic and environmental impacts (Adelekan 2010; Douglas et al. the funds for the immediate intervention in the event of flooding are not readily available… If we are faced with the magnitude of flooding that requires evacuation of the affected communities, we shall beckon on the Federal Government for its intervention (Vanguard 2016). J Geogr Geol 5(3):216–225. I can’t leave here even if death is knocking at my door” (Mosadomi 2016). WARRI, Nigeria - Nigeria’s president says more than 100,000 people have been displaced by flooding in the central part of the country. “The flood that occurred in Adamawa State will eventually get to them. In: Dunlap RE, Brulle R (eds) Sociological perspectives on climate change. The research will help to identify the areas that are prone to flood. It will also help to know the ways to mitigate the effect of flooding. In another instance, a local indicated he is ready to die rather than respond to the warning by emergency agency: “I have been living all my life here where do I go from here and what do I fall back on to fend for my family? Thus, we have made a distinction between a media frame by the journalist and the frame used by a policy actor group within a media report. The implication of such a perspective is an inevitable short-term thinking and, particularly as regards infrastructure, a reactive approach. Whilst duplicates were included in the number of articles for each newspaper, only one was included in the final analysis to avoid double counting. Accessed 10 Feb 2017, Mugume SN, Melville-Shreeve P, Gomez D, Butler D (2017) Multifunctional urban flood resilience enhancement strategies. There is a need in such circumstances for ‘outside’ actors to engage government and local actors and understand perceptions and priorities and realise that there could be more than one plausible interpretation of reality (Tamboukou et al., McNair B (2009) News and journalism in the UK. Although there was a framing around inadequate infrastructure as cause of flooding (19 frames, 10%), this does not explain the high number of frames suggesting engineered solutions to the problem. By framing issues in specific ways, an entity can declare the underlying causes and likely consequences of a problem and establish criteria for evaluating potential remedies for the problem (Nelson et al. Flooding alone affected 2.3 billion (56 %) people worldwide ( Table 1) (EM-DAT 2015), and at least 20% of the Nigerian population was affected by flood disasters (Oyekale 2013)., McBeth MK, Jones MD, Shanahan EA (2014) The narrative policy framework. This could also be an arena of lack of policy consensus between local actors and foreign actors and could present difficulties when developed societies try to assist developing societies such as Nigeria in flood management. The final narrative held by multilateral actors is most balanced as it emphasises both the human and natural causes of flooding as well as all three adaptation strategies. FLOODING IN NIGERIA: CAUSES, EFFECTS AND SOLUTION Chapter one Introduction 1.1 Background to the study Floods are major disasters affecting many countries of the world annually especially in most flood plain areas. /Root 36 0 R Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress, Washington, Miles B, Morse S (2007) The role of news media in natural disaster risk and recovery. Flood adaptation strategies have become a particularly important and viable option for developing countries as recent flooding have caused widespread destruction and human tragedy (Nyong et al. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 12(5):1431–1439. The narratives of government, local communities and businesses align with the premise that flooding can and should be prevented whilst that of multilateral and business actors champion adaptation strategies on the basis that flooding is inevitable and hence more energy should be directed at ‘living with water’—emergency response, damage reduction and the aftermath. 2014), there has been no previous analysis of how issues of urban flooding are framed within the Nigerian media, especially by key policy actors. Water Resour Dev 21(4):561–575. Am Polit Sci Rev 91(03):567–583. Fundamental to these debates or discursive ‘battles’ are questions over whether anthropogenic or climate-related factors are the root cause of flooding (Texier 2008; Thompson and Warburton 1985) and illustrate the potentially complex interactions between human and the environment. (2015), who designated pathways for adapting to climate change impacts into structural (such as engineered, technological and ecosystem-based), institutional (such as laws and regulations, government policies, programmes and services) and societal (such as educational, informational, behavioural and social services). Polit Geogr 27(3):322–338. Available at 0000006153 00000 n The study also identified areas of potential consensus and conflict between direct actors such as government and local communities on the one hand and funders on the other. endobj That is for river flooding. When taken collectively to build the narratives of actors around the causes and solution to urban flood in Nigeria, there are four major strands of narratives. Vanguard 24 September [online]. Public Uderstanding Sci 26(7):872–888., Friend R, Jarvie J, Reed SO, Sutarto R, Thinphanga P, Toan VC (2014) Mainstreaming urban climate resilience into policy and planning; reflections from Asia. 0000006987 00000 n Add this content to your collection! Not surprisingly, considering the main perceived cause, the ‘enforcement of the provisions of environmental and planning laws’ through policing and ‘demolition of buildings’ is highly regarded by governmental actors. To ensure that we do not dwell on articles whereby news organisation reframes the narratives of key actors, we focus mainly on where direct quotes have been reported as a way to differentiate between media framing and the framing of the actors we have analysed. including Nigeria, causing flooding and increasing the water level of Niger and Benue rivers (see Section 1.2). 36 0 obj Third is the narrative of non-governmental organisations which emphasises both human and natural causes of flooding, but is strong on adopting societal adaptation measures as solution. 2005). 0000294597 00000 n The problem of flooding is not peculiar to Nigeria alone. Public Underst Sci 23(4):454–471., Mitchell JK (2003) European river floods in a changing world. For instance, in 2015, victims of the 2012 flood were yet to receive housing promised to them (Wantu and Akubo 2015) and it is doubtful if they ever will (Gwaza 2014). For instance, if two newspapers provide similar report on an incident, then the report from only one of these sources is counted towards the final analysis. Int J Health Promot Educ 43(2):36–44., Kahneman D, Tversky A (1984) Choices, values, and frames. J R Soc Arts 58:839–847, Ugonna C (2016) A review of flooding and flood risk reduction in Nigeria. Therefore, for example, there could be two officials in a news article emphasising the same frame and this would count only as one., Johnson CL, Tunstall SM, Penning-Rowsell EC (2005) Floods as catalysts for policy change: historical lessons from England and Wales. 2015). Sources were investigated and information collated with particular reference to narratives, activities and actions of stakeholders during the reported flood incidents. Regional Environmental Change The National Emergency Management Agency (Nema) says heavy rains caused the … 2005; Mitchell 2003). However, unlike the preceding two actor groups that emphasised the need for laws and regulations, corporate actors’ narratives are around the need to promote government policies and economic measures such as provision of insurance. /ID [<28bf4e5e4e758a4164004e56fffa0108><28bf4e5e4e758a4164004e56fffa0108>] Nigeria has experienced a lot of flood Abiodun BJ, Salami AT, Tadross M (2011) Climate change scenarios for Nigeria: understanding biophysical impacts. Nigeria faces flooding almost every year. ; and (3) What are the possible policy implications of the manner in which various actors frame urban flood issues? Nigeria flooding called ‘natural disaster’ Worst floods in 50 years have killed 140 people, left hundreds of thousands homeless, and raised fears of a food crisis. Adaptation in the context of flood management is viewed as a means of strengthening the resilience of people and places by decreasing their vulnerability to flooding (Wilby and Keenan 2012). The range of frames around flooding in Nigerian cities was identified and compared among various actor groups. In: Sabatier PA, Weible C (eds) Theories of the policy process, vol 3., Etemire U (2015) Law and practice on public participation in environmental matters: the Nigerian example in transnational comparative perspective. Effects of Flooding on Amassoma Flood Plain Phytoplankton Niger Delta, Nigeria Akankali, J.A. Analysis was extended beyond this main focus of the paper to also compile comprehensive data on incidence and impacts of flooding in Nigerian cities, since this could easily be collated from the news articles sourced in the study. This should also include promoting the benefits of mainstreaming resilience beyond the management of disaster that underlies the new approaches (Friend et al. For the period studied, news media have not covered some actors, especially the business and multilateral organisations’ narratives with the same attention given to other actors. However, our analysis did show that the narratives of business actors focus on disregard for laws and regulations and poor and inadequate infrastructure as the major causes of flooding in Nigerian cities. Droughts have also become a constant in Nigeria, and are expected to continue in Northern Nigeria, arising from a decline in precipitation and rise in temperature (Amanchukwu et al., 2015; Olapido, 2010). The worst fluvial flood in Nigeria was the Kaduna flood Journal of J Geography & Natural Disasters o u r n a l D o f G e o r a p h y & N a t u r a l … This subtle disparity between direct actors and those with funding or mediating roles calls for caution, especially when it comes to building consensus and evolving strategies on flood management in developing regions. Now rising is the threat of water-related diseases, such as cholera and acute watery diarrhoea, which are easily spread through contaminated floodwater. In 2007, floods affected 1.5 million people across several countries in Africa , including Uganda, Sudan, Kenya, Ghana, Ethiopia and Niger. Frames highlight bits of information that are embedded within and make themselves manifest in a text—such as a news report (Entman 1993) and as such does not require the extra-discursive practices needed for a discourse analysis or detailed account needed for a narrative analysis. 2010). Available at,, Jalayer F, De Risi R, Kyessi A, Mbuya E, Yonas N (2015) Vulnerability of built environment to flooding in African cities. Since the end of the Nigerian civil war and accompanying oil boom of the 1970s (Orubuloye 1995), the country has become increasingly an urban society and the proportion of people living in urban areas has gradually increased from 16% in 1970 to more than 20% in 1980 (Metz 1991) and is currently over 46% (The World Bank 2016). The frame of some governmental actors contains some reference to the idea that people have formed negative habits that may be hard to change. The dominance of engineered over laws and regulations evident within the local communities’ narratives makes for the interesting interpretation that local actors may be assuming that with a better engineered approach, their behavioural disregard of law can be excused. Westview Press, Boulder, 2, pp 225–266. 0000007069 00000 n 3, pp. 2011). Accessed 18 Dec 2016, Vanguard (2016) Abia lacks capacity to handle emergency flood disaster – SSG. engineered among locals and laws and regulations among government actors. A media framing analysis of urban flooding in Nigeria: current narratives and implications for policy. By mid-October, floods had forced 1.3 million people from their homes and claimed 431 lives, according to Nigeria’s National Emergency Management Agency. From Europe, to Africa, Asia, North and South America, and Nigeria, the world is undoubtedly under serious threat from the environment. Understanding and potentially challenging these assumptions can help ensure that flood management strategies are sustainable and do not further degrade infrastructure and exacerbate poverty and social unrest (Eriksen et al. 2012; Ukonu et al. Generally fl… >> Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Chang 12(5):787–797. This aligns with the observation of Adelekan and Asiyanbi (2016), that there has been a shift in balance from structural to non-structural approaches in flood risk management in Lagos—Nigeria’s most populous city, and further underscores the need to rethink the idea that developing countries are reliant on structural measures to control floods. /Pages 33 0 R Flood risk is not just based on history, but on a number of factors: rainfall, riverflow and tidal-surge data, topography, flood control measures, and changes due to construction of building and development on flood plain areas., Nkwunonwo UC, Whitworth M, Baily B (2016) A review and critical analysis of the efforts towards urban flood risk management in the Lagos region of Nigeria. The Nigerian Disaster Management system has evolved from the pre-colonial times when risk reduction and disaster resilience was embedded in religious practices to a more government structured system still having some of its original features. Beginning in July 2012, heavy rains struck the entire country. The Federal Government of Nigeria failed to heed early warnings by relevant agencies and was unprepared to manage the 2012 flood which was one of the most devastating in the country [5]. Flooding and Welfare of Fishers’ Households in Lagos State, Nigeria. This emphasises human factors such as disregard for planning laws, poor and blocked drainage systems and indiscriminate dumping of refuse as the main causes of flooding. /Linearized 1 Nigeria – Floods Hit Niger, Kano and Nasarawa States 31 August, 2018 Nigeria’s Hydrological Services Agency (NIHSA) has warned communities in Kebbi, Niger, Kwara, Kogi, Anambra, Delta and Bayelsa states that increasingly high river levels could cause major flooding. When considered individually across specific themes under each frame, there is a dominance of focus on the need for government policies as the main approach among business, multilateral and non-governmental organisations. This suggests that publication of flood-related articles in Nigeria media reflects the concept of ‘issue-attention cycle’ (Downs 1972). There was departure from the foregoing narratives and introduction of a new frame under the multilateral organisation actors. trailer Risk Anal 23:567–574. /L 995623 However, whilst governments seem to be coming to terms with the inevitability of flooding in cities, the notion of ‘community resilience’ beyond being prepared with immediate post-disaster relief is entirely absent. over. A total of 1704 articles containing the search criteria were generated for the period under study. For example, the Executive Secretary of Plateau State Emergency Management Agency, PSEMA, stated: “Government heard of the reported cases of flooding in these council areas and we are here to assess the level of damage with a view to mitigating the sufferings of the people”. The narratives of government, local communities and businesses align with the premise that flooding can and should be prevented whilst that of multilateral and business actors champion adaptation strategies on the basis that flooding is inevitable and, hence, more energy should be directed at ‘living with water’—emergency response, damage reduction and the aftermath. In 1993 In Nigeria, there exist reports of flooding in some towns and cities during heavy downpours but none compares with the flood under review. This is more balanced and lays equal emphasis on both human and climate-related factors (Schaller et al. The frames are further described below and sample texts/quotes showing them are presented as supplementary material. 0000013314 00000 n In this manner, frames offer both a diagnosis and a prescription to a complex problem or event (Nisbet 2009). Periodic floods occur on many rivers, forming a surrounding region known as flood plain. 3. According to Ayansina et al., (2009); the seasonal and annual rainfall variability in some parts of Nigeria Broadly speaking, there are three main types of news media. Guardian 2 October [Online]. Of these, we identified 106 articles to analyse frames of government, 68 for local communities, 15 for multilateral organisations, 24 for NGOs and 7 for corporate (private businesses) (Fig. This study makes an important contribution to literature on how analysis of media articles in a developing country context could enhance understanding of contemporary environmental challenges., Nelson TE, Clawson RA, Oxley ZM (1997) Media framing of a civil liberties conflict and its effect on tolerance. Sage, London, Devitt C, O’Neill E (2017) The framing of two major flood episodes in the Irish print news media: implications for societal adaptation to living with flood risk. It is therefore possible to extract more than one frame per article (discourse unit) (Matthes 2009). Historically, Nigeria’s urban centres have experienced occasional major floods, for example, there is oral history record of water flooding some major cities (Tremearne 1910). The strategies currently practiced or suggested as solutions by governmental actors mainly target structural (102 frames) and institutional (106 frames) approaches (Table 2). In Nigeria, as in most developing countries, flooding has been linked to natural causes, urbanisation and … As such, flooding is not always only caused by climatic conditions but its interactions with socio-political factors, e.g. (2010), if we expect people to accept more responsibility and possibly adopt behavioural approaches, then they should be involved in decisions connected with flooding., International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (2013) Emergency appeal operation update Nigeria: floods vol 2. According to Entman (1993, p. 52), “to frame is to select some aspects of a perceived reality and make them more salient in a communicating text, in such a way as to promote a particular problem definition, causal interpretation, moral evaluation, and/or treatment recommendation for the item described”. 1.6 Scope of the Study. Narrative analysis on the other hand focuses on the way individuals present their accounts of themselves, and views self-narrations both as constructions and claims of identity (Linde 1993). Springer, London, pp 77–106, Jiang L, O’Neill BC (2017) Global urbanization projections for the shared socioeconomic pathways. In its broadest sense, semiotic analysis is concerned with everything that can be taken as a sign (Eco 1976), which is most relevant to media in the audiovisual form, which is outside the scope of this study that focuses on texts. 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