Use cores to determine acceptance of concrete pavement thickness. Mixing water with surface mortar during finishing reduces surface durability. Contact Us | Do not grant permission to a request from the contractor for selective coring. Then one may doubt the reasons of placing longitudinal joints in concrete pavements. Also, be sure the contractor does the vibrating at the locations and in the frequencies and amplitudes specified. Not placing additional tie bars at TCJs, and the use of relief transverse saw cut joints near TCJs, along with improved construction practices at TCJs, will minimize the distresses. Verify that Form CEM-3101, “Notice of Materials to Be Used,” includes concrete pavement materials. For assistance, consult the district materials engineer. Measure the pavement’s width at the beginning of and periodically after paving. Longitudinal joints are used in concrete pavements to relieve curling and warping stresses in concrete pavement slabs and to control longitudinal cracking. Check that the contractor applies the curing compound uniformly after tining. Test strips not meeting requirements are rejected. Suggested levels of field inspection for typical concrete pavement activities are: Guidance for quality control activities included in this section is summarized as follows: Using the dimensions shown on the plans, calculate the quantity of concrete pavement to be paid for. Check that the wire is tensioned sufficiently to prevent measurable sag between supporting stakes. The contractor is also required to submit this test data electronically to the specified website. Your inspection should verify the following attributes for the compound: It is not contaminated, diluted, or altered before application. Dowel bars are smooth round bars which mainly serve as load transfer device across concrete joints. Lane demarcation/markings in highways with two or more lanes. This process continued until the secondary unit was bounded by panels in which the secondary measurements were deficient in thickness by 0.05 foot or less. A satisfactory moisture environment can be created during the initial curing of the specimens by one or more of the following procedures: (1) immerse molded specimens with plastic lids in water; (2) store specimens in a container or enclosure; (3) place specimens in damp sand pits; (4) cover specimens with plastic lids; (5) place specimens inside plastic bags; or (6) cover specimens with wet fabric. Obtain physical specimens used for the contractor’s testing of coefficient of thermal expansion. Do the following in examining equipment or tools: Examine the forms for specified attributes, including those for composition, weight, dimensions, and rigidity. Do not allow coring machines on fresh concrete while any danger exists of damaging the concrete. While the required width applies to both upper and lower surfaces, the bottom width can be greater than specified to reduce edge slump. Generally it is made of epoxy coated steel. Figure 7-6. Refer to Section 40-1.02C, “Reinforcement, Bars, and Baskets,” of the. Provide these specimens with the same temperature protection and moisture environment as the concrete pavement they are representing. In the calculation to determine average thickness of the primary unit, use the average thickness of all secondary cores outside the secondary unit to replace the thickness of the initial primary core within that secondary unit. Refer to Section 4-90, “Concrete,” of this manual for information on concrete mix designs. Decide if crossings will be necessary for the convenience of public traffic and whether rapid strength concrete should be used for such crossings. The resulting number is the number of primary cores to be taken, unless the contractor requests additional ones. The spacing between transverse joints is typically about 15 feet for slabs 7 to 12 inches thick. Note the safety precautions in the test method. To calculate the deficiency adjustment, do not separately consider additional cores that are deficient in thickness by no more than 0.05 foot. When it is a construction joint AND the pavement is . Obtain certificates of compliance when tie bars, threaded tie bar splice couplers, dowel bars, tie bar baskets, dowel bar baskets, joint filler material, and epoxy powder coating items are to be used in concrete pavement. Instead, include these cores with the original primary cores. Limit excluded areas to the following: Local areas where authorized modifications to the planned pavement thickness have been permitted. Examine the equipment or tools to be used. Drying of the surfaces of the beam shall be prevented between removal from water storage and completion of testing. Subsequent cores were taken at a core interval of 900 feet, excluding skip areas, proceeding from lane 4 to lane 1. Reject the secondary unit area for noncompliance pursuant to Section 5-1.30, “Noncompliant and Unauthorized Work,” of the Standard Specifications. 4.5m to accommodate the effect of differential settlement of pavement foundation. Monitor the contractor’s conformance with their quality control plan. In addition to the deductions for pavement thickness deficiencies in the primary and secondary units, a deduction from payment to the contractor was made for the cost of all secondary thickness measurements. Make sure an authorized test strip has been constructed before production paving. Epoxy coated tie bar at 3’-0" c/c 1’-6" 1’-6" TIE-BAR SIZES FOR LONGITUDINAL JOINT Pavement Thickness, D D Single pass saw cut (Depth = D/3) TRANSVERSE SECTION THROUGH PCCP Less than or equal to 9" Greater than 9" #5 #6 Tie-Bar Size INDIANA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STANDARD DRAWING NO. Obtain copies of certifications for project records. Figure 4-40.1, “Primary Cores,” illustrates the primary unit and the locations of all the primary cores. Observe coring operations and obtain drilled corings in properly identified plastic bags from the contractor. When a wire controls the grade and alignment of the paver, check the wire for any obvious variations. When long hauls are involved, review the contractor’s proposed placement method to verify that adequate time will be available. Before concrete placement, check that the subgrade is uniformly moist, but free from standing or flowing water. Note these areas in daily reports with stationing and offset information. To determine the primary unit deduction, multiply the primary unit area, excluding any secondary unit areas, by the appropriate factor (if any) in the table titled “Deduction for Thickness Deficiency” within Section 40-1.01D(8)(c)(iv), “Thickness,” of the Standard Specifications. They are placed at mid-depth slab and bent back till the adjacent lane is prepared to be paved. Observe texturing for compliance with requirements. To maintain the concrete pavement at the thickness specified, the contractor may adjust the planned finished grade provided two conditions are met: All lower layers have been constructed to at least the minimum required elevations. Using -0.05 foot for the Core 7 thickness deficiency, the engineer calculated the average thickness deficiency (cores 1 through 7) for the primary area to be -0.016 foot. For concrete pavement widenings placed adjacent to existing pavements, make sure the existing pavement lane or shoulder is ground before new concrete is placed. Testimonials. It is applied when concrete surfaces are still visibly moist. What are the functions of slip joints in blockwork seawalls? Difference between dowel bars and tie bars For instance, tie bars are used in longitudinal joints in concrete pavement. Follow up orally, if necessary, to be certain the contractor knows when and where coring will take place. A good location is one convenient to a water source and removed from any traffic. If paving or finishing operations will extend beyond daylight hours, check that adequate lighting facilities are on the project before paving begins. When these tie bars are used to connect two lanes, or a lane and shoulder, the tie bar may be mechanically inserted by the paving machine into the fresh concrete ahead of the float, or it may be held in position by support devices. The panels in the secondary unit area represented by cores 7, 7a-1, 7a-2 and 7b-1 were measured and found to be 54 feet in length and represent 72 square yards. • Tie bars : deformed rebars or connectors used for holding faces of rigid slabs in contact to maintain aggregate interlock. The net area of such pavement placed in any one day technically becomes a primary unit area and, as such, is subject to the specifications regarding thickness measurements. Typically, tie bars are about 12.5 mm (0.5 inches) in diameter and between 0.6 and 1.0 m (24 and 40 inches long). During cold weather, protect the specimens from freezing with suitable insulation material. For instance, tie bars are used in longitudinal joints in concrete pavement. A Mechanistic-Empirical Tie Bar Design Approach for Concrete Pavements Applied Research Associates, Inc. v EXECUTIVE SUMMARY BACKGROUND Longitudinal joints are used in concrete pavements to relieve curling and warping stresses in concrete pavement slabs and to control longitudinal cracking. For jointed plain concrete pavements, check that dowel bar baskets, tie bar baskets, and the bars themselves are not being displaced during the concrete placement and paving operations. Note the following for coefficient of friction: Areas with uniform surface texture require testing only at representative locations to assure that the required coefficient of friction has been provided. A longitudinal joint consists of a tie bar placed at the mid-depth of a concrete pavement and it is not intended for joint lateral movement. For continuously reinforced concrete pavements, obtain a plastic chair submittal and plastic chair sample if their use is proposed by the contractor. Make deductions from contract payments for deficient pavement thickness. Longitudinal Joints Longitudinal joints are required when pavement width is more than 4.5m. To determine the average thickness deficiency, if any, for the primary unit, average the thickness variations of all primary cores. Calculation Factors to Locate Cores, 4-4003F Calculation of Deductions in Payment to the Contractor for Deficient Thickness, 4-4003F (1) When None of the Primary Cores are Deficient in Thickness by More Than 0.05 Foot, 4-4003F (2) When One or More of the Primary Cores are Deficient in Thickness by More Than 0.05 Foot, 4-4003F (3) Contractor’s Requests for Additional Thickness Measurements, 4-4003G Handling of Skips in the Original Day’s Pour and Secondary Areas to Be Removed and Replaced, 4-4003H Handling Deficient Areas Not Cored, Chapter 4: Construction Details, Section 40: Concrete Pavement, Preparation of concrete pavement subgrade, Placing, finishing, and curing of the concrete pavement. Another important factor is load transfer. vUnderstand the various types of equipment used to form joints. Coring for determining acceptance of dowel bars and tie bar placement is to be conducted in a similar manner as that of thickness, except use revised lot sizes based on the specified frequencies. Tie bars may be machine placed during paving Before and after the application of curing seal, make sure that the contractor keeps the pavement surface moist as specified. If additional cores are deficient in thickness by more than 0.05 foot, determine the limits of the secondary areas. Order any necessary corrective work before the placement of concrete. This section covers mostly onsite inspection duties. Obtain a certificate of compliance, including required test results, for each batch of curing compound. Check that any specified bond breaker material, curing seal, or other required treatment has been applied and maintained on the underlying material in conformance with contract requirements. Tie bars in cement concrete pavements are at a) expansion joints b) contraction joints c) warping joints d) longitudinal joints Verify that the completed rumble strip conforms to the tolerances for alignment, spacing, depth, length, and width. Before coring begins in primary units, designate areas where coring is excluded. Why are excessive movement joints undesirable in bridges? Perform measurements and calculations for the curing seal’s application rate. For jointed plain concrete pavements, monitor the contractor’s timelines from concrete placement to curing application and contraction joint sawing in comparison to their planned schedule from their early age crack mitigation system. There are three basic joint types used in concrete pavement: contraction, construction and isolation. Verify that concrete pavement joints are constructed in conformance with Section 40‑1.03B, “Joints” of the. Keep in mind that the contractor is responsible for the thickness and smoothness of the pavement. The resulting value was used in the calculation instead of the thickness variation for Core 7 to determine the average thickness deficiency of the primary unit area. Make sure that individual suspension limits do not exceed specified acceptance criteria. For continuously reinforced concrete pavements, make sure the coefficient of thermal expansion test values meet acceptance criteria as a condition of qualification. For information on producing and transporting concrete, refer to Section 4-90, “Concrete,” of this manual. The curing film remains unbroken for the specified duration of curing. pavement using either an epoxy resin or an adhesive grout. Refer to Section 36-3, “Pavement Smoothness,” of the, Obtain contractor’s inertial profiler information and reports for each day of inertial profiling of concrete pavement. However, in addition to onsite inspection, mix design authorization and plant inspection are part of the resident engineer’s responsibility. Whenever early tests are performed, advise the contractor that such areas are subject to retesting. Refer to Section 6-202, “Responsibilities for Acceptance of Manufactured or Fabricated Materials and Products,” of this manual for additional information. Inspectors and assistants must inform the resident engineer of test results in a timely manner. The actual length paved was 6,300 feet (3,150 feet x 2 lanes). Require the contractor to supply sufficient sand or earth for burying the beams. Use judgment regarding which of these areas warrant thickness coring. The engineer calculated the number of cores required for thickness measurements in the primary unit (8,400/1,200 = 7) and the core interval (6,300/7 = 900). i am Civil engineer Ghulam Rabani Mobariz i hope your help me to course of Civil Engineering material. Privacy Policy | Tie bars are placed along the longitudinal joints of CC pavement in order to prevent opening up of the longitudinal joints in the due course. The system assists the contractor in predicting concrete stresses and strength during the initial 72 hours after paving for constructing contraction joints, cure application, and crack mitigation. However, you may use values higher than the required minimum to indicate compliance even if you made measurements lower than 40 degrees Fahrenheit. At the start of each day’s work, check that the specified date stamp is used to mark the new pavement. Then locate them laterally within each lane as used for the first core by applying successive values from the lateral factors in Table 4-40.1. The average of the thickness variations in the preceding table is -0.045 feet. Watch for improper proportions or inadequate mixing as concrete is placed. Make sure the contractor sprays the concrete with a mist of water until the concrete has set before placing the membrane. Grooves are to be constructed over the entire pavement width with the exception of within 3 inches of pavement edges and longitudinal joints. Verify that the contractor employs the specified portable weather station at the paving site to monitor, update, and report predictions. Core 7 was deficient by more than 0.05 foot. Tie bars are not load transferring device. Continuous inspection of concrete delivery, placement, finishing, curing, and contraction joint operations. Verify that field qualification of proposed mix proportions is performed by an American Concrete Institute-certified Concrete Laboratory Technician, Grade 1. For California Test 523, “Method of Test for Flexural Strength of Concrete (Modulus of Rupture),” select a location to store concrete beams. Chapter 1 - Caltrans Construction Organization, 4-4002D Concrete Field Qualification and Pavement Test Strip, 4-4003E Measurement of Pavement Thickness, Table 4-40.1. Make the deficiency adjustment on the average thickness deficiency in the same manner as for areas that have been cored. Notify the contractor in writing of the date and place where coring will be performed. Tie bars typically are used across the joints … All values in the table are to be used successively for each primary unit throughout the project after the value for the first core in the unit is selected at random. For jointed plain concrete pavements, examine concrete pavement surfaces once the cure period is complete. To determine the rate, you may use California Test 535, “Determining the Application Rates of Concrete Curing Compounds in the Field.” Record the measurements in the daily report. 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